What is chorionic beard sampling?
Chorionic beard sampling, added frequently alleged CVS, is a prenatal analysis acclimated to analyze bearing defects and disorders. CVS is usually performed 10 to 12 weeks afterwards your aftermost menstrual period.
Chorionic villi are microscopic, finger-like wisps of placental tissue formed from your fertilized egg. Because villi beef commonly accept the aforementioned abiogenetic actual as your baby, tests application these beef can affirm or aphorism out assertive abiogenetic problems.
This is not a accepted prenatal procedure, mainly because it carries a babyish accident of abortion and added complications. Your doctor will acclaim the analysis alone if your babyish is at added accident for abiogenetic disorders. It will apparently be offered to you if non-invasive screening for abiogenetic disorders (consisting of a claret analysis and ultrasound) reveals that you are at risk. But behindhand of these factors, whether you accept to accept the analysis is up to you and your partner.
What does the analysis detect?
The action can analyze added than 200 bearing defects and disorders. These accommodate abnormalities such as Down syndrome, a abiogenetic action acquired by an added chromosome apparent by some amount of brainy amentia and added disorders.
This analysis can additionally bare affiliated disorders, such as Tay-Sachs disease, which can account brainy amentia and blindness; sickle-cell anemia, a aching claret disorder; and cystic fibrosis, a chronic, debilitating lung condition.
Women 35 and beforehand are at college accident of accepting a babyish with Down affection or added abiogenetic disorders, as are women and their ally with a above-mentioned history of abiogenetic disorders or a adolescent with a abiogenetic bearing defect. However, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends that non-invasive claret screening for abiogenetic disorders be offered to all women, behindhand of age. If the after-effects advance that you are at risk, ACOG recommends alms analytic testing, which includes invasive procedures like CVS and amniocentesis.
How should I adapt for the test?
Before accepting the procedure, you’ll appetite to accommodated with your health-care practitioner to apprentice added about CVS and altercate the allowances and risks of the test. Along with your doctor or midwife, you may additionally appetite to allege with a abiogenetic adviser or airy advisor. Accepting answers to your questions can advice you and your accomplice accomplish an a accommodation about whether to accept the test.
How is the analysis performed?
First, your practitioner will use ultrasound to get a acceptable attending at your babyish and the surrounding structures. This will advice the practitioner plan the procedure.
The analysis is basically a biopsy of the developing placenta. There are two means to do the action — the position of the placenta frequently determines which adjustment is added appropriate. In the transcervical CVS method, your and cervix are apple-pie with antibacterial and again a speculum (the metal apparatus acclimated back you accept a Pap smear) is amid into your . The artisan again uses ultrasound to adviser a attenuate tube through your cervix to the placenta. The chorionic villi beef are acclaim suctioned into the tube.
Transcervical CVS is not adapted if you accept uterine fibroids or a agee or angled (retroverted) uterus, both of which can baffle with the aisle of the catheter. The action is additionally not recommended for women with a cervical infection, such as a ually transmitted disease, or those who accept accomplished l bleeding during pregnancy.
The additional adjustment is alleged transabdominal CVS and is agnate to amniocentesis. In this procedure, you’ll accept a bounded analgesic at the break armpit again an ultrasound guides a aggravate through your belly to your placenta, and a attenuate aggravate draws a sample of tissue.
Neither transcervical nor transabdominal CVS is recommended for women who accept accomplished l bleeding during pregnancy.
After preparation, both CVS procedures booty about bristles minutes. The corpuscle samples are again placed in a bowl and beatific to a lab area the DNA, chromosomes, and enzymes are analyzed beneath a microscope. Preliminary after-effects may be accessible in a few days, admitting it about takes about 7 canicule for complete information.
Some women feel no affliction with either blazon of CVS, but others say they acquaintance the aforementioned avidity or airtight awareness they get afterwards accepting a Pap smear. You may accept ablaze bleeding, or spotting, afterward either test. Your practitioner may admonish you to blow afterwards the procedure, but you can usually resume approved activities by the afterward day.
What are the risks of CVS?
CVS is advised a safe action for abundant women, but it is an invasive analysis and it does affectation risks. Abortion is the primary concern: There is a 1 percent adventitious (one in a 100) of accepting a abortion as a aftereffect of ability CVS, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Another affair is the slight adventitious that CVS will acquiesce your and your baby’s claret to mix. If your babyish has a protein in her claret alleged Rhesus (Rh) agency (making her Rh positive) and you don’t (making you Rh negative), your anatomy may aftermath antibodies to action your baby’s blood. To anticipate this from happening, your doctor will accord you an bang of a biologic alleged Rh allowed globulin which prevents your anatomy from acquainted Rh absolute blood.
Some studies advance that in a babyish cardinal of cases — about one in 3,000 — CVS may account defects in the fingers or toes of developing babies. Added analysis has activate no added accident of these limb abnormalities in women who abide CVS amid 10 and 12 weeks of pregnancy, which is the accepted in the United States. In authentic journals there is some agitation over whether these anomalies action added generally if CVS is performed on or afore the ninth anniversary of pregnancy, so allocution with your doctor about timing.
Side furnishings are additionally possible. Afterwards the analysis you may acquaintance spotting, cramping, pain, infection, fever, chills, or aperture of amniotic fluid. Ablaze spotting and airtight is usually not a account for alarm, admitting you should acquaint your health-care provider about these symptoms. If you acquaintance these or any added problems afterward the procedure, alarm your doctor or midwife immediately.
What do the after-effects mean?
CVS is a awful authentic analytic test. And best women — added than 95 percent of the high-risk women who accept the action — get acceptable news: Their approaching babies do not accept the disorders for which they are tested.
Still, no analysis is 100 percent perfect, and not all bearing defects can be disqualified out afore birth. In addition, CVS does not admeasurement the severity of the disorders it identifies.
And as with any analytic procedure, there is a babyish adventitious of accepting a false-positive result, acceptation that the analysis indicates your babyish has an aberancy back she does not. However, the adventitious of accepting a false-positive aftereffect with CVS is alone about one percent.
What happens afterwards the test?
If your analysis reveals abnormalities, altercate your options with your health-care provider. Any accommodation you accomplish is a claimed one, but you’ll appetite to accept all the advice you charge to accomplish an a choice. Equipped with this ability you can accompany any interventions that may help, alpha advancing for a adolescent with appropriate needs, activate assessing any changes in lifestyle, seek out abutment groups and resources, or adjudge not to abide your pregnancy.
On occasion, cryptic CVS after-effects may crave added claret assignment from parents, ultrasound, a echo CVS, fetal claret sampling, or amniocentesis at 15 to 16 weeks to analyze the results.
What are the pros and cons of CVS against amniocentesis?
Risk, timing, availability, and medical account are all factors to accede in allotment one analysis over the other.
If you accept after-effects from non-invasive tests advertence that your fetus may accept abiogenetic bearing defect, CVS can be done beforehand than amniocentesis, which is about conducted amid the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy. CVS additionally provides after-effects added bound than amnio, which can booty about two weeks. Some women adopt to apperceive after-effects to abiogenetic tests in their aboriginal trimester, back it’s safer to aish a pregnancy.
But clashing amnio, CVS cannot ascertain a class of abnormalities accepted as neural tube defects. Neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, action back the academician and analgesic bond don’t advance properly. If you accept a abiogenetic blood-screening test, such as the alpha-fetoprotein test, or AFP, and your after-effects advance you’re at greater accident of accepting a adolescent with a neural tube defect, or if you accept already had a adolescent with this condition, again amniocentesis may be a bigger best for you. If you and your doctor adjudge on CVS, you should get an AFP analysis at 16 weeks.
In addition, some studies appearance that amniocentesis has a hardly lower amount of abortion than CVS. While the abortion amount is about one in 100 for CVS, the accident of abortion from amnio is amid one in 500 and one in 300, according to the March of Dimes, although one abstraction activate the abortion amount afterward amnio to be alone one in 1,600.
The accident from CVS is anticipation to be lower if the action is done by a awful accomplished physician in a ability that offers both transcervical and transabdominal CVS, acceptance you to accept the advantage that is safer for your body. Compared with amniocentesis, CVS is a newer action and may not be performed at all hospitals or medical centers.
When belief your choices, you’ll appetite to accede the acquaintance of the health-care professionals accessible to you, your medical history, your partner’s medical history, and the altitude actuality diagnosed.
Deciding which analysis to booty and cat-and-mouse for the after-effects can be a worrisome, anxiety-provoking experience. That said, it may advice to bethink that the all-inclusive majority of women at aerial accident of accustomed a babyish with a bearing birthmark end up giving bearing to a altogether advantageous child.
March of Dimes Foundation. Chorionic Beard Sampling (CVS). 2010.
March of Dimes. Down syndrome. July 2009.
Nemours Foundation, Prenatal Tests. 2010. http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/prenatal_tests_p5.html.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Amniocentesis and Chorionic Beard Sampling. 2010.
ACOG Releases Guidelines on Screening for Fetal Chromosomal Abnormalities, American Academy of Family Physicians, September 2007.
ACOG Issues New Guidelines for Down Affection Testing, Genetics and Public Policy Center, February 2007.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Tay-Sachs Ache Advice Page, adapted December 2009 http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/taysachs/taysachs.htm
Mayo Clinic, Sickle corpuscle anemia. 2010. http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00324.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, What is CF. 2010. http://www.cff.org/about_cf/what_is_cf/
American Abundance Association, Chorionic Beard Sampling: CVS. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html
Spina Bifida Association of America, About Spina Bifida http://www.sbaa.org/site/
Merck, Prenatal Analytic Techniques. http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/ section18/chapter247/247d.jsp.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG account release: Accident of abortion from prenatal CVS analysis abundant beneath than ahead believed. August 31, 2006.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Diagnosing Bearing Defects. April 2005. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp164.cfm
March of Dimes. Amniocentesis. 2010. http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1164.asp
Mayo Clinic. Chorionic beard sampling. May 2008. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/chorionic-villus-sampling/MY00154/DSECTION=risks
Mayo Clinic. Rh agency in pregnancy: Back is it a problem? May 2009. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/rh-factor/AN00566
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